COVID-19 Protection

The following general measures are recommended to reduce transmission of infection:

●  Diligent hand washing, particularly after touching surfaces in public. Use of hand sanitizer that contains at least 60 percent alcohol is a reasonable alternative if the hands are not visibly dirty.

●  Respiratory hygiene (eg, covering the cough or sneeze).

●  Avoiding touching the face (in particular eyes, nose, and mouth).

●  Avoiding crowds (particularly in poorly ventilated spaces) if possible and avoiding close contact with ill individuals.

●  Cleaning and disinfecting objects and surfaces that are frequently touched.


In particular, older adults and individuals with chronic medical conditions should be encouraged to follow these measures.



Prevention & Treatment

Articles for your consideration 

COVID-19: Melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment


Author: Rui Zhang, Xuebin Wang, Leng Ni, Xiao Di, Baitao Ma, Shuai Niu, Changwei Liu, Russel J. Reiter

Publication: Life Sciences

Publisher: Elsevier

Date: Available online 23 March 2020

© 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.

This article summarizes the likely benefits of melatonin in the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has become a pandemic with tens of thousands of infected patients. Based on clinical features, pathology, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory disorder induced by either highly homogenous coronaviruses or other pathogens, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response very likely contribute to COVID-19 pathology. This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often death. Melatonin, a well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule, is protective against ALI/ARDS caused by viral and other pathogens. Melatonin is effective in critical care patients by reducing vessel permeability, anxiety, sedation use, and improving sleeping quality, which might also be beneficial for better clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Notably, melatonin has a high safety profile. There is significant data showing that melatonin limits virus-related diseases and would also likely be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. Additional experiments and clinical studies are required to confirm this speculation.

Putative pathogenesis of COVID-19 and potential adjuvant use of melatonin.